Exposome cycle chapter 2
Known links between Exposome and diseases
In creating its Foundation, the French Academy of Medicine wished to place at the service of society as a whole its unique ability to bring together, on essential health and social issues and around the best French and international experts, all stakeholders, political, medical, scientific, economic and associative. To fulfil its mission, the Foundation of the French Academy of Medicinee (FAM) has chosen to organise debates open to the public and the media and directly relayed to the public authorities, based on excellent scientific publications or communications. In addition to their level, these debates are distinguished from other events of the same type by the benefit of the institutional status and the guarantees of credibility and ethics that are recognised at the National Academy of Medicine.
After its first cycle of debates on the theme of “Society & Ageing”, with another in progress on “Food Today and Tomorrow”, the FAM is continuing its cycle on the theme of the “Exposome”.
The subject of human exposure to mixtures of chemical contaminants is broad, of major health importance and is becoming more complex by the day, as illustrated by the case of pollutants with endocrine disrupting effects. This pollution is sometimes visible, as in the case of smog in large megacities (Beijing, New Delhi, etc.), or invisible, as in the case of pesticides, plasticisers or solvents in the environment, drinking water or food.
The effects of this pollution on health (cancers, infertility, cognitive disorders, diabetes, obesity) and the associated economic impacts are increasingly quantified. For the European Union, the annual cost of the impact of endocrine disruptors has been estimated at around 157 billion euros.
Considerable work is still required to better quantify the risk resulting from the combination of the presence of a hazard, its effects and the exposure of populations.
There is a very high level of ambition to better assess exposures and quantify risks, particularly at European level. It is a question of establishing the concept of Exposome in the sense of the totality of an individual’s exposure, often leading to medium- or long-term effects.
Thanks to the expected progress, the aim will be to identify the agents, situations and populations at risk in order to build health prevention policies.
This cycle will enable the audience to better understand this complex issue of the Exposome, its ambitions and the major health issues associated with it. The proceedings of these debates will be presented to the National Assembly.
Debate II – Known links between Exposome and diseases
Exposure of populations to mixtures of chemical contaminants through air, food, drink and skin contact occurs throughout the life span, particularly during more fragile periods such as pregnancy (in-utero transmission), embryo development and then from the child to adolescence. Major scientific progress has made it possible to better identify the nature of chemical agents and to gain a better understanding of the causes of the disease. Their pathways, targets for action and effects on human health. There are currently 4 main types of pathologies associated with multiple exposure to environmental contaminants:
1. Hormone-dependent diseases and the role of endocrine disruptors :
– Metabolism (diabetes)
– Hormone-dependent cancers,
– Developmental and reproductive disorders…
2. Other cancers and other environmental exposures: asbestos, UV radiation, etc.
3. Cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, allergies and air pollution
4. Neuropsychological disorders
After having presented the main areas to guide risk assessment, the FAM is continuing its cycle of debates on the Exposome and the health risks linked to multiple chemical exposures by approaching the levels of knowledge on known and measured health impacts at the international level. Diseases linked to endocrine disruptors (hormone-dependent cancers, developmental disorders, metabolic diseases, etc.), the consequences of air pollution, cancers, and functional cognitive and behavioural syndromes linked to environmental exposures will be addressed.
In view of the many concerns regarding information on the pollutants in our environment, the session will provide an opportunity for exchange and debate to take stock of the state of science. The debate will also propose to discuss known examples, with figures, of the types of contaminants (including unknown mixtures) and critical phases of life.
IMPORTANT: due to the health situation, the debate will take place exclusively by videoconference via Zoom. Pre-registration is required in order to receive the link. Once the form has been completed, you will receive the link shortly before the event.
Deadline for registration: 22 April 2021